Journal Title

Environmental Research Letters

Publication Date



Consumers in the US market and across the globe are beginning to widely adopt light emitting diode (LED) lighting products while the technology continues to undergo significant changes. While LED products are evolving to consume less energy, they are also more complex than traditional lighting products with a higher number of parts and a larger number of electronic components. Enthusiasm around the efficiency and long expected life span of LED lighting products is valid, but research to optimize product characteristics and design is needed. This study seeks to address that gap by characterizing LED lighting products’ suitability for end of life (EOL) recycling and disposal. The authors disassembled and assessed 17 different lighting products to understand how designs differ between brands and manufacture year. Products were evaluated based on six parameters to quantify the design. The analysis indicates that while the efficiency of LED products has improved dramatically in the recent past, product designers and manufacturers could incorporate design strategies to improve environmental performance of lighting products at end-of-life.

Author Supplied Keywords

End of life, Lighting, Green design, Design for environment, Light-emitting diode, Recycling, Solid-state lighting


Buildings--Environmental engineering--United States; Lighting; Light emitting diodes

Publication Information

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd

Archived version is the final published version.





Document Type

Journal Article